Zichron Jacob is located in the southern part of the Carmel Range, 22 miles south of Haifa, and he is one of the first "modern" settlements in Israel. Zikhron became one of the first Jewish villages in the then Palestine. The village had its original name Zamarin. The founders of the city were a hundred Jewish pioneers who returned to their Biblical homeland from Romania. The beginning of those 100 immigrants who in December 1882 founded the city under the name of Zamarin was very difficult. From these difficult circumstances, many of the original settlers left during the first 12 months. But by a lucky coincidence, the next year saw the visit to Israel of the French Jewish philanthropist and wine-maker Baron Edmond James de Rothschild and his visit to Zamarin. He found that, it turns out, the soil of the slopes of Mount Carmel has excellent winemaking qualities and is really intended for growing grapes. The Baron renamed the city in memory of his father Jacob, Zichron in Hebrew means "Memorial", and founded the Caramel Winery, which to this day is one of the leading wineries in Israel.
Planning of the city was entrusted to professional planners, with which the main street was designed with French tiled roof ventilation modules facing the road. Behind each house there was a long courtyard, and there was a back building for storing farm implements. Original courtyards and back buildings can still be seen in many places.
The main street known as Midrakhov is now a pedestrian zone, along which there are many various cafes, shops, boutiques. Since this is an original settlement street, many houses on it are of great historical value, from the plaques outside one can learn the history of many. At the end of the Midrashov the First Museum of Alia, the museum of the repatriation of Jews to the State of Israel, is located, which tells about the fascinating history of the pioneers from Europe, who founded this city more than a hundred years ago.
The Baron was also commissioned to build a synagogue in the city, named Ohel Yaakov in honor of his father. The synagogue has been operating daily since 1886, mainly on Shabbat and on Feast days, serves as one of the hallmarks of urban architecture in the northern part of the Midrahov.
Among the most famous buildings in the city with its stone, the castle facade and the beautiful garden - the family house of Aaronson on Hameasdim street. Becoming one of the basic families of Zichron senior Aaronson left Romania with their furniture, crystals and porcelain, which are exhibited at their home as if the family had just prepared to start an official meal.
Among historical buildings, numerous shops and galleries one can find an ancient synagogue. But the real purpose of this building and what is really behind it is to serve as a reservoir known as Brechat Binyamin. And the true goal during its construction in 1891 was to ensure a continuously flowing water flow to the central point in the village.
But the main object in Zichron Yakov is, without a doubt, the father of all wineries, which was the first. The Baron-based Carmel-Mizrahi Wine Factory was founded in 1885 on the basis of the fruits of his French cuttings. In 1892, the vines were infected with a bacterial disease and were destroyed. The people of Rothschild imported some seedlings from America that were resistant to these bacteria, and this had a positive effect on the state of the winery. A bottling factory was also established in this area, in which today the Mizgag Museum in the kibbutz Nakhsholim. Currently, in the original 120-year-old building of Carmel, on the advanced equipment, the best-awarded wines are produced. Carmel has grown to the largest winery in Israel, producing 15 million bottles a year in four separate sites.
In the new Carmel Wine & Culture complex, visitors will find a wine shop, a restaurant, two specialized tasting rooms, a small cinema and a barrel in one of the underground cellars of Rothschild.